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Refrigerant gas FAQ


What is FEP material?

FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) is a tough, flexible copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene. It is often used for flexible tubing and fluid processing equipment when chemical resistance, high purity, and low stiffness are required. FEP has outstanding electrical properties and UV resistance.

Why are there two columns on a PT chart, and how are they used?

The two columns on the PT chart give the liquid and vapor pressures at the listed temperatures. Single component refrigerants and azeotropic blends have bubble points and dew points equal to each other, and we simply call this the boiling point. When there is only one column on the PT chart, low glide blends would have very similar numbers in the two columns, and often the PT chart will only have one column as well for them.How a two-column PT chart is used is straightforward. Most times you're interested in knowing the saturated temperature of the refrigerant at the system pressure, so you can compare it to a measurement you're making on the system (for example, to check a superheat or subcool setting). Simply keep track of the condition of the refrigerant where you're measuring, and cross-reference the same side of the PT chart.Superheat measurements check the line temperature of superheated refrigerant vapor coming out of the evaporator versus the saturated vapor temperature, so you would use the vapor side of the PT chart.Subcool measurements check the temperature of subcooled liquid refrigerant coming out of the condenser versus the saturated liquid temperature, so you would use the liquid side of the PT chart.

What do "bubble point" and "dew point" mean?

A single component refrigerant always had a "boiling point." Zeotropic blends change composition when they boil or condense, and therefore have a continuously changing boiling point. The most useful temperatures to know are where the boiling starts and ends. Bubble point and dew point are terms used in the chemical industry to define these two temperatures.Bubble point is the temperature where the saturated liquid starts to boil off its first "bubble" of vapor. (Picture a pot of liquid with the first bubbles starting to appear.) It is also called the "liquid side temperature/ pressure relationship." Dew point is the temperature where saturated vapor first starts to condense, or the last drop of liquid evaporates. (Picture a room full of vapor with a few drops forming on the ceiling.) This is also called the "vapor side temperature/ pressure relationship."

Why do bubbles appear in the sight glass when I use a blend? Does this mean I don't have enough refr

There are several reasons for bubbles in the sight glass. If one of the traditional refrigerants showed vapor in the sight glass it often meant there wasn't enough liquid refrigerant being fed to the valve, and more refrigerant was added to the system.Blends could show flashing for the same reason, however, they can also flash when there is plenty of liquid in the receiver. Ironically, this liquid in the receiver could be causing the problem, particularly when the equipment is in a hot environment. Blends will come out of the condenser slightly subcooled — at a temperature below the saturated temperature of the blend at the existing high side pressure.Yet when the blend sits in the receiver, it can "locally fractionate," or change composition slightly by shifting one of the components into the vapor space of the receiver. This will effectively produce a saturated liquid in the receiver, at the same pressure you had before, which flashes when it hits the expanded volume of the sight glass. In most cases these bubbles will collapse when the blend gets back into the tubing which feeds the valve, and the system will operate just fine.Check other system parameters such as pressures, superheat and amperage to confirm whether you have the right charge. Don't rely solely on the sight glass.

If a blend leaks out of the system, will I need to pull the remaining charge and recharge, or can I

It depends. Studies were done a few years ago to show how higher glide blends behave during leakage and they showed significant fractionation, which affected the properties of the blend. When the system was topped off, the properties came back close to original. The cycle was repeated to see how many times the system could leak before topping off became a problem (the recommendation was not more than five). These studies were done on containers at rest, which promotes the worst case of fractionation.Another study was performed recently on a system running full time, then cycling normally (2/3 on, 1/3 off), which found that the blend did not fractionate when the refrigerant is moving around inside, and not much fractionation occurred when cycling. Low-glide blends didn't show much fractionation in any case.What this means is that running systems found to be low on charge have probably not fractionated the blend much, and can be repaired and recharged directly. If the system has been off for a long period (more than a day) and found to have leaked (worst case is about half the charge), it's best to pull what's left and charge with fresh, unless very little is gone, or very little is left. Low-glide blends won't cause any fractionation-related problems.

If I am putting in the whole refrigerant bottle, can I feed vapor then?

You can feed vapor, however, at any point in time the compressor will be seeing the wrong composition gas. At first the vapor will be rich in the higher pressure, higher capacity component. This will cause high discharge pressure and temperature, high motor amps, etc. As the cylinder empties, the compressor will see the lower capacity gas which is left behind, changing the operating conditions the other way.It will take some time for the "locally fractionated" gas to get mixed back into the original composition. Besides, if you need to charge the whole bottle, it's faster to put it in as a liquid.

What is the proper charging method for refrigerant blends? If I charge by liquid, won't I slug my co

In a cylinder, a zeotropic blend will have a different vapor composition sitting above the bulk of the liquid. If you remove this vapor, you will: 1) take the wrong composition refrigerant out of the cylinder, and 2) leave behind the wrong composition refrigerant for future use. Liquid must be removed from the cylinder in order to avoid this fractionation effect. Somewhere between the cylinder and the compressor the liquid refrigerant should be flashed to vapor to avoid slugging. This can be done, for example, by just cracking open the valve on the gauge set while charging.

Do I need to change the oil in my system when I retrofit to a blend?

To begin, HFCs (134a and 404a / 507) MUST have some of the mineral oil replaced with polyolester (POE). Most manufacturers recommend less than 5% residual mineral oil, although that is an arbitrary number and recent studies have show larger amounts of residual mineral oil will still work fine. Some blends contain hydrocarbons, which help with mineral oil circulation even though the HFC blend will not mix with the MO. Larger, more complicated systems will still require the addition of POE to help mix the oil with liquid refrigerant, for example in a receiver.With the older R-12 and R-502 retrofit blends (401A, 401B, 402A, 402B, 408A, 409A, and similar blends), replacement of some of the mineral oil with alkylbenzene (AB) or POE is recommended at lower temperatures. Evaporators running above 0ºF will generally be able to return mineral oil with these blends.


  R600aR600ais a HFC and CFC free refrigerant, providing the most environmentally friendlyrefrigerant available. It is extremely    energy efficient, andhas high cooling ability, low electricity waste.Properties: IndexUnitR600aChemical formula C4H10Molecular weightg/mol58.12Critical temperature℃134.98Critical pressureKPa3660Saturated liquid density (25℃)Kg/m3551Specific heat (25℃liquid)KJ/kg·k2.38Critical densityg/cm30.221Vaporization heat at boiling pointKJ/kg366.5ODP 0GWP 0.1 QualitySpecification: IndexGrade ⅠAppearanceColorless & not turbidodorNo strange stenchPurity % ≥99.5Moisture ppm % ≤0.001Acidity (as HCl) ppm % ≤0.0001Evaporation residue ppm % ≤0.01 Packing:20kg/40L, 460kg/926L, returnable steel cylinders.  性状用途:R600a(高纯度异丁烷)是一种性能优异的制冷剂,其特点是冷却能力强,耗电量低,负载温度回升速度慢。  物理性质 :  单位R600a分子式 C4H10分子量g/mol58.12沸点 101.3kpa (℃)℃-11.80临界温度℃134.98临界压力KPa3660饱和液体密度 (25℃)Kg/m3551比热 (25℃液体)KJ/Kg· K2.38临界密度g/cm30.221沸点时蒸发潜热KJ/kg366.5ODP 0GWP 0.1 质量指标 : 指标名称优等品外观无色、不浑浊气味无异臭纯度 ( % ≥)99.5水份( % ≤)0.001酸度 ( 以HCl计 ) ,( % ≤)0.00001蒸发残留物 ( % ≤)0.01   


  R507R507is a colorless gas under ordinary temperature, and a colorless &transparent liquid under the pressure of itself,       mixed by R143 and R125. It is the substitute for R502,mainly used in the low temperature refrigerating systems.Properties:  UnitR507Chemical formula R-143/R-125Molecular weightg/mol98.86Melting point℃-46.7Critical temperature℃70.9Critical pressureMPa3.79Saturated liquid density (30℃)g/cm31.06Critical densityg/cm30.5ODP 0GWP 0.96 QualitySpecification: IndexExcellent GradeAppearanceColorless , not turbidodorNo strange stenchPurity % ≥99.8Moisture % ≤0.001Acidity (as HCl) % ≤0.00001Evaporation residue % ≤0.01Chlorides(Cl-) test % ≤0.0003No condensable gas (V/V) % ≤1.5 Packing:11.3kg/30p steel cylinders or ISO TANK.Itmust be kept in cool, dry and well-ventilated places, away from sunshine andrainfall.  性状用途:R507混合制冷剂是由R143和R125混合而成,在常温下为无色气体,在自身压力下为无色透明液体,是R502的替代品,主要用于低温制冷系统。  物理性质 :   单位 R507 分子式  R-143/R-125 分子量 g/mol 98.86 沸点 ℃ -46.7 临界温度 ℃ 70.9 临界压力 MPa 3.79 饱和液体密度 (30℃) g/cm3 1.06 临界密度 g/cm3 0.5 ODP  0 GWP  0.96 质量指标 :  指标名称 优等品 外观 无色、澄清 气味 无异臭 纯度 ( % ≥) 99.8 水份( % ≤) 0.001 酸度 ( 以HCl计 ) ,( % ≤) 0.00001 蒸发残留物 ( % ≤) 0.01 氯化物(Cl-) ( % ≤) 0.0003 不凝性气体的体积分数 ( % ≤) 1.5  


  R407CR407Cis a colorless gas under ordinary temperature, and a colorless &transparent liquid under the pressure ofitself,        mixed by R32, R134aand R125.R407Cis the long-term substitute for R22, mainly used in the air conditioner and othernon-centrifugal refrigerating systemsProperties:  UnitR407CChemical formula R-32/R-134a/R-125Molecular weightg/mol86.2Melting point℃-43.4Critical temperature℃86.2Critical pressureMPa4.62Saturated liquid density (30℃)g/cm31.139Critical densityg/cm30.527ODP 0GWP 1600 QualitySpecification: IndexExcellent GradeAppearanceColorless , not turbidodorNo strange stenchPurity % ≥99.8Moisture % ≤0.001Acidity (as HCl) % ≤0.00001Evaporation residue % ≤0.01Chlorides(Cl-) test % ≤0.0003No condensable gas (V/V) % ≤1.5 Packing:10.9kg/30p, 950kg/1000L, 870kg/926L steel cylinders or ISO TANK.Itmust be kept in cool, dry and well-ventilated places, away from sunshine andrainfall.  性状用途:R407C由R32,R134a和R125混合而成,在常温下为无色气体,在自身压力下为无色透明液体,是R22的长期替代品,主要用于空调、非离心式制冷系统。  物理性质 :   单位 R407C 分子式  R-32/R-134a/R-125 分子量 g/mol 86.2 沸点 ℃ -43.4 临界温度 ℃ 86.2 临界压力 MPa 4.62 饱和液体密度 (30℃) g/cm3 1.139 临界密度 g/cm3 0.527 ODP  0 GWP  0.36 质量指标 :  指标名称 优等品 外观 无色、澄清 气味 无异臭 纯度 ( % ≥) 99.8 水份( % ≤) 0.001 酸度 ( 以HCl计 ) ,( % ≤) 0.00001 蒸发残留物 ( % ≤) 0.01 氯化物(Cl-) ( % ≤) 0.0003 不凝性气体的体积分数 ( % ≤) 1.5  


  R410AR410ais a clorless gas under ordinary temperature, and a colorlss & TransparentLiquid under the pressure of itslf, mixed by HFC-32 and HFC-125. And it is thesubstitute for R22, mainly used in the air conditioners and other refrigeratigsystems.Properties: IndexUnitR410AChemical formula R-32/R-125Molecular weightg/mol72.58Boiling point℃-51.53Critical temperature℃72.13Critical pressureMPa4.93Saturated liquid density (25℃)g/cm31.062Liquid specific heat (25℃)KJ/(Kg ·℃)1.84Equip pressure specific heat (Cp) (25℃) 101.3kPaKJ/(Kg ·℃)0.832Critical densityg/cm30.489Vaporization heat at boiling pointKJ/Kg276.2ODP 0GWP 0.42 QualitySpecification: IndexExcellent GradeAppearanceColorless , not turbidOdorNo strange stenchPurity % ≥99.8Moisture % ≤0.001Acidity (as HCl) % ≤0.00001Evaporation residue % ≤0.01Chlorides(Cl-) test % ≤0.0003No condensable gas (V/V) % ≤1.5 Packing:11.3kg/30P unrefillable steel cylinders;760kg/800L,870kg/926L returnablesteelcylinders,or ISO TANK. The filling index is less than0.95kg/L. It must be kept in cool,dry and well-ventilated places, away      fromsunshine and rainfall.  性状用途:R410A混合制冷剂是由R32和R125混合而成,在常温下为无色气体,在自身压力下为无色透明液体,是R22的替代品,主要用于空调和制冷系统。  物理性质 :   单位 R410A 分子式  R-32/ R-125 分子量 g/mol 72.58 沸点 ℃ -51.53 临界温度 ℃ 72.13 临界压力 MPa 4.93 饱和液体密度 (25℃) g/cm3 1.062 液体比热 (25℃) KJ/(Kg·℃) 1.84 等压蒸气比热 (25℃) KJ/(Kg·℃) 0.832 临界密度 g/cm3 0.489 沸点时蒸发潜热 KJ/kg 276.2 ODP  0 GWP  0.42 质量指标 :  指标名称 优等品 外观 无色、澄清 气味 无异臭 纯度 ( % ≥) 99.8 水份( % ≤) 0.001 酸度 ( 以HCl计 ) ,( % ≤) 0.00001 蒸发残留物 ( % ≤) 0.01 氯化物(Cl-) ( % ≤) 0.0003 不凝性气体的体积分数 ( % ≤) 1.5   


  R404AR404Ais a colorless gas under ordinary temperature, and a colorless &transparent liquid under the pressure of itself,     mixedby R125, R134a and R143. It is a long-term substitute for R502, mainly used inthe refrigerating systems of low & moderate temperature.Properties:  UnitR404AChemical formula R-134a/R-125/R-32Molecular weightg/mol Melting point℃-46.1Critical temperature℃72.4Critical pressureMPa3.69Saturated liquid density (25℃)g/cm31.045ODP 0GWP 0.35 QualitySpecification: IndexExcellent GradeAppearanceColorless , not turbidodorNo strange stenchPurity % ≥99.8Moisture % ≤0.001Acidity (as HCl) % ≤0.00001Evaporation residue % ≤0.01Chlorides(Cl-) test % ≤0.0003No condensable gas (V/V) % ≤1.5 Packing:10.9kg/30p steel cylinders or ISO TANK.Itmust be kept in cool, dry and well-ventilated places, away from sunshine andrainfall.  性状用途:R404A由R125,R134a和R143混合而成,在常温下为无色气体,在自身压力下为无色透明液体,是R502的长期替代品,主要用于低、中温制冷系统。 物理性质 :   单位 R404A 分子式  R-134a/R-125/R-32 分子量 g/mol  沸点 ℃ -46.1 临界温度 ℃ 72.4 临界压力 MPa 3.69 饱和液体密度 (25℃) g/cm3 1.045 ODP  0 GWP  0.35(HGWP) 质量指标 :  指标名称 优等品 外观 无色、澄清 气味 无异臭 纯度 ( % ≥) 99.8 水份( % ≤) 0.001 酸度 ( 以HCl计 ) ,( % ≤) 0.0001 蒸发残留物 ( % ≤) 0.01 氯化物(Cl-) ( % ≤) 0.0003 不凝性气体的体积分数 ( % ≤) 1.5   


  R152aR152ais a colorless gas under ordinary temperature, and a colorless &transparent liquid under the pressure of itself, easily solube in oil but poorlyin water. It is mainly used as the  important raw material forrefrigerants, aerosol propellants and synthesis of R142b. As the substitutiverefrigerant for CFC-12, it will be a long-term one and have absolutelyno bad effects against ozonosphere.Properties: IndexUnit R152aChemical formula CH3CHF2Molecular weightg/mol66.1Melting point℃-24.23Liquid density (25℃)g/cm30.90Vapor pressure (25℃)MPa0.596Critical temperature℃113.5Critical pressureMPa4.52Critical densityg/cm30.368Vaporization heat at boiling pointKJ/kg324.2Water’s solubility (25℃)W%0.3ODP 0GWP 0.3 QualitySpecification: IndexExcellent GradeAppearanceColorless , not turbidOdorNo strange stenchPurity % ≥99.8Moisture % ≤0.001Acidity (as HCl) % ≤0.0001Evaporation residue % ≤0.01No condensable gas (V/V) % ≤1.5 Packing:320KG/400L&640KG/800Lsteel cylinders (≥2.0MPa), ISO TANK.PS:UN NO.1030, HS Code 29034599.00, CAS 75-37-6, IMDG Page 2132, Class 2.1.  性状用途:1,1-二氟乙烷在常温下为气体,在自身压力下为无色透明液体,易溶于油,难溶于水。高纯级R152a用作感温工质,优级R152a可用作制冷剂和气雾剂,也是合成R142b的重要原料。该产品可替代CFC-12作制冷剂,是对臭氧层完全无破坏的长久性替代品。 物理性质 :  单位R152a分子式 CH3-CHF2分子量g/mol66.1沸点℃-24.23液体密度(25℃)克/厘米30.90蒸气压 (25℃)MPa0.596临界温度℃113.5临界压力MPa4.52临界密度g/cm30.368沸点时蒸发潜热KJ/kg324.2在水中溶解度 (25℃)%(m/m)0.3ODP 0GWP 0.03 质量指标 : 指标名称优等品外观无色、不浑浊气味无异臭纯度 ( % ≥)99.95水份( % ≤)0.001酸度 ( 以HCl计 ) ,( % ≤)0.0001蒸发残留物 ( % ≤)0.01氯化物(Cl-) ( % ≤)0.0003不凝性气体的体积分数 ( % ≤)1.5  R406AR406Ais a colorless gas under ordinary temperature, and a colorless &transparent liquid under the pressure of itself,     mixed by R22, R142b and R600a. And it is the substitute for R502 and R12.Properties:  UnitR406AChemical formula R-22/R-142b/R-600aMolecular weightg/mol89.86Melting point℃-32.7Critical temperature℃116.5Critical pressureMPa4.88Saturated liquid density (25℃)g/cm3 Critical densityg/cm3-0.456ODP 0.036GWP 0.33 QualitySpecification: IndexExcellent GradeAppearanceColorless , not turbidodorNo strange stenchPurity % ≥99.8Moisture % ≤0.001Acidity (as HCl) % ≤0.00001Evaporation residue % ≤0.01Chlorides(Cl-) test % ≤0.0003No condensable gas (V/V) % ≤1.5 Packing:10.7kg/30p steel cylinders.Itmust be kept in cool, dry and well-ventilated places, away from sunshine andrainfall.  性状用途:R406A混合制冷剂由R22,R142b和R600a混合而成,在常温下为无色气体,在自身压力下为无色透明液体,是R500,R12的替代品。 物理性质 :   单位 R406A 分子式  R-22/R-142b/R-600a 分子量 g/mol 89.86 沸点 ℃ -32.7 临界温度 ℃ 116.5 临界压力 MPa 4.88 饱和液体密度 (25℃) g/cm3  临界密度 g/cm3 -0.456 ODP  0.036 GWP  0.33(HGWP) 质量指标 :  指标名称 优等品 外观 无色、澄清 气味 无异臭 纯度 ( % ≥) 99.8 水份( % ≤) 0.001 酸度 ( 以HCl计 ) ,( % ≤) 0.00001 蒸发残留物 ( % ≤) 0.01 氯化物(Cl-) ( % ≤) 0.0003 不凝性气体的体积分数 ( % ≤) 1.5